An analysis of spatial inequalities based on social indices in Tabriz metropolitan

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate professor, Department of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University of Garmsar Branch, Semnan, Iran.

2 Non-faculty member, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil. Iran.


Inequality in many countries is considered a major challenge to development, especially for those countries whose sovereignty includes vast geographical areas. These inequalities are a serious threat to obtain balanced development of regions, and makes it difficult to achieve national unity and integrity. So, addressing the issue of spatial justice and, consequently, spatial inequality in urban issues has been of great significance. This research has considered spatial analysis of inequalities in Tabriz metropolitan by considering social indices in 2011. In this applied research a descriptive-analytic method was used. The spatial auto-correlation technique was used to identify and measure the inequality by using hot spot analysis in ArcGIS software. In order to understand the scope of study from the perspective of spatial inequalities, data from statistical blocks of 2011 and nine social indices have been used. Also, findings of research indicated that Tabriz does not have a suitable status in terms of the distribution of social indices. According to the results, in the distribution of social inequalities, the largest number of urban blocks are related to very deprived and deprived blocks, and only a small number of urban blocks are completely possessed ones. Also, the results of spatial inequality zonation based on social indices revealed that completely deprived urban blocks have expanded in the marginal blocks of Tabriz, while moderate and completely possessed blocks are expanded towards the blocks inside the city. Also, the distribution of blocks in terms of desirability is in clustered form and has spatial correlation.


  • Ahmad Tooze, Vahed. (2013). Investigation and analysis of spatial justice in Saqez (Case study: Saqez city neighborhoods), Master thesis of geography and urban planning, University of Tehran, Faculty of Geography.
  • Ahmadian, Amir. (2001). First National Report on Human Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2008, Organization for Management and Planning, Tehran.
  • Ahmadian Sadr, Meysam. (2017). A critical review of theoretical approaches in the analysis of spatial inequality (with emphasis on spatial inequality in contemporary Tehran), Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 76, Spring 2017, pp. 105-95.
  • Imanzad Andarian, Mehdi. (1394). Master's Thesis, International Pardis Aras, Tabriz University, Faculty of Geography and Planning, p 139.
  • Jamali, Firouz, Ghanbari, Abolfazl, Pourmohammadi, Mohammad Reza. (2010). A review of the concept of inequality and its related concepts in socioeconomic studies, space planning, Vol 14, Number 2, summer 2010, pp. 141121.
  • Khalou Bagheri, Mahdieh. (2012). Confronting Spatial Inequality While Using Planning Based on Improving Quality of Life, Quarterly Journal of Economics and Urban Management, No. 1, Winter 2012, pp. 67 49.
  • Rahmati, Khosrow. (1393). "Analysis of Spatial Inequalities Based on Social Indices in Middle-Central Countries (Case Study: Miandoab City), Master's Thesis, Tabriz University, Assistant Professors: Dr. Bahman Hadili and Dr. Shahrivar Roustayi, Faculty of Geography and Urban Planning, p 127.
  • Zadvali, Shahrokh. (2013). Evaluation of cellular displacement of physical and social indices in marginal regions (case study: northern marginal areas of Tabriz city); Master's thesis of geography and urban planning; Zanjan University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities.
  • Zadvali, Fatemeh. (1393). Measuring the Poverty Transition Changes in Tabriz Urban Spaces during 1996-2006, Master's thesis, Faculty of Geography and Planning, professor: Dr. Shahrivar Roustayi, Tabriz University.
  • Zanganeh, Ali Reza. (2010). Recognition of Spatial Pattern of Urban Poverty Expansion Using Geographic Information System (GIS) in Kermanshah, Iran (2004-2005), Zanjan University.
  • Sassanpur, Farzaneh, Mostafavi Saheb Soran, Ahmadi, Mazhar (2015), Spatial Inequality Analysis in Utilizing Urban Services (Case Study: Sanandaj Province in 22 regions), Urban Research and Planning Publications. Vol 6, N 23, winter 2015, pp. 95-114.
  • Sharifi, Abdolnabi. (2006). Social Justice and City, An Analysis of Regional Inequalities in Ahvaz, Ph.D. thesis of Geography and planning.
  • Sheikhavandi, Davoud. (2004). Concepts of equality and inequality in the Western philosophies Journal of Social Science Development and Education, Vol 8, Issue 1, Autumn 2004.
  • Ghanbari Haft Cheshmeh, Abolfazl. (2009).An Analysis of Regional Inequalities in Iran by Emphasizing the Urban Areas of East Azerbaijan, Ph.D. thesis of Geography and Urban Planning, Tabriz University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Kalantari, Khalil. (2001). Regional Planning and Development, Khoshbin Publications, Tehran.
  • Grip, Edward B. (1373), Social Inequality: The Views of Classical and Contemporary Theorists, Translated by Mohammad Siahpoush and Ahmad Reza Gharvi, Contemporary Publications, Tehran.
  • Marsousi, Nafiseh (2004) Social Development and Urban Social Justice, Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, No. 14.
  • Nikpour, Amer, Malekshahi, Gholamreza, Rezqi, Fatemeh. (2015). Quarterly Journal of Urban Studies, Vol. 16, Autumn 2015, pp. 38-27.
  • Varesi, Hamid Reza, Zangi Abadi, Ali, Yaghafouri, Hossein. (2008).Comparative study of the distribution of urban public services from the perspective of social justice, Journal of Geography and Development, No. 11, pp. 139-156.
  • Chen, W, Sun, J. (2006). “Sociological Perspectives on Urban China: Form Familiar Territories to Complex Terrains”, China Information, 20(3): 519 -551.
  • Dufaux, F, (2008), Birth announcement, justice spatial/ spatial justice, (October 2010).
  • Duncan , D, Aldstadt, J, Whalen,J, White, K, Castro,M, Williams, D(2012) Space, race and poverty: Spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities? http://www.demographic
  • Ebrahimabadi, M. S (2008), Accessibility and Street Layout. Master Thesis in Urban Planning and Design. Stockholm: Sweden
  • Fujita, K (2009).Urban justice and Sustainability. Local Environment, VOL. 14. NO. 5
  • Iveson, K (2011). Social or Spatial justice? Marcuse and Soja. On the right to the city. City VOL. 15, NO 2.
  • KanburŲŒ Ravi, VenablesŲŒ Anthony j. (2005), spatial Inequality and Development, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kinman, E L (1999), Evaluating health services equity at a primary care clinic in Chilmark. Bolivia Social Science & Medicine49 (5), 663–678.
  • Manderschei. K. (2012), Planning Sustainability: Intergenerational and International Justice in Spatial planning Strategies. Antipode. Vol 4 No 1pp197-216.
  • Shankar, R. Shah, A., (2010), Bridging the Economic Divide Within Countries: A Scorecard on the Performance of Regional Policies in Reducing Regional Income Disparities. World Development Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 1421–1441, 2003.
  • Soja, Edward. (2006), the city and spatial justice, justice spatial/spatial justice,