Evaluation of urban resilience to crime (A case study of theft crimes in Varamin)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty Member of Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Ph.D. student, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


The resilience of people to an adverse event in their city, community or environment reflects their flexibility in coping with or absorbing the incident. Achieving a resilient community requires attention to both physical and social aspects of resilience. In this quantitative survey, the spatial distribution of theft crimes in the districts of the city of Varamin were analyzed with the help of nearest neighbor index (NNI) and kernel density estimation (KDE) methods, and the social and physical aspects of resilience were evaluated by the use of questionnaires, official reports, and public records. The results showed a relationship, with a correlation coefficient of -0.344, between crime rate and resilience, which indicates that the communities that enjoy a higher resilience have a significantly lower crime rate. The rate of crimes varied with social, economic and physical characteristics of districts, and while the crime vulnerability indicators of peripheral districts were mostly physical-objective and were formed based on the concept of crime prevention through environmental design, the vulnerability indicators of the central districts were both objective and subjective and belonged to the social dimension of resilience.


  • Adger, W. N. (2000). Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in human geography, 24(3), 347-364.
  • Ahmadi, S., Sayfoddini, F., Kalantari, M. (2013), Spatial analysis of crime patterns in district 17 of Tehran municipality, Journal of Applied Geosciences Research, Vol. 13, No. 31, pp. 47-72.
  • Aitsi-Selmi, A., Egawa, S., Sasaki, H., Wannous, C., & Murray, V. (2015). The Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction: Renewing the global commitment to people’s resilience, health, and well-being. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 6(2), 164-176.
  • Ayyub, B. M. (2014). Systems resilience for multihazard environments: Definition, metrics, and valuation for decision making. Risk Analysis, 34(2), 340-355.
  • Badri, A., Ramezanzadeh Lasbui, M., Asgari, A., Ghadiri Masoom, M., Salmani, M. (2013), The role of local management in promoting resilience to natural disasters with an emphasis on flood, Case study: Cheshmeh Kileh basin of Tonekabon and Sardarabad basin of Kelardasht, Quarterly Journal of Crisis Management, No. 3, pp. 39-50.
  • Bayanloo, Y., Mansourian M.K. (2006), The relationship between population density and the rate and type of crime, Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 6, No. 22, pp. 29-56.
  • Cutter, S. L., Ahearn, J. A., Amadei, B., Crawford, P., Eide, E. A., Galloway, G. E., ... & Scrimshaw, S. C. (2013). Disaster resilience: A national imperative. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 55(2), 25-29.
  • Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). Community and regional resilience: Perspectives from hazards, disasters, and emergency management. Community and Regional Resilience Initiative (CARRI) Research Report, 1.
  • Farid Taherani, S. (2011), Fear in urban space, Tehran, Armaneshahr Publishing.
  • Farzad Behtash, M.R, Keynejad, M.A., Pir Babaei, M.T., Asgari, A. (1392), Evaluation and analysis of dimensions and components of the resilience of Tabriz metropolis, Journal of Fine Arts Architecture and Urban Development, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 33-42.
  • Farzad Behtash, M.R, Pir Babaei, M.T., Keynejad, M.A., Agha Babaei, M.T. (2012), Dimensions and components of resilience in Islamic cities, Quarterly Journal of Iranian-Islamic city, No. 9, pp. 113-121.
  • Ghiasvand, A., Abdolshah, F. (2015), Economic resilience indicators, Ravand Quarterly Journal, Vol. 23, No. 71, pp. 77-106.
  • Ghorbani, M., Avazpour, L., Yousefi, M. (2015), Analysis and evaluation of social capital for the promotion of sustainable land management and resilience in local communities, case study: South-Khorasan Province, RFLDL international project, Range and Watershed Management, Journal of Iranian Natural Resources, Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 625-645.
  • Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.
  • Kafle, S. K. (2012). Measuring disaster-resilient communities: A case study of coastal communities in Indonesia. Journal of business continuity & emergency planning, 5(4), 316-326.
  • Kalantari, M. (2001), Geographical survey of crime in the districts of Tehran, Dissertation for Ph.D. in Geography and Urban Planning, supervised by M.T Rahnamayi, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran.
  • Kamrannia, J. (2006). Spatial and prospective analysis of crime pattern in the central districts of Shiraz, Master’s thesis, Beheshti University of Tehran.
  • Keck, M., & Sakdapolrak, P. (2013). What is social resilience? Lessons learned and ways forward. Erdkunde, 5-19.
  • Klein, R. J., Nicholls, R. J., & Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: How useful is this concept?. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 5(1-2), 35-45.
  • Mitchell, T., & Harris, K. (2012). Resilience: A risk management approach. ODI Background Note. Overseas Development Institute: London.
  • Moore, M., Chandra, A., & Feeney, K. C. (2013). Building community resilience: what can the United States learn from experiences in other countries?. Disaster medicine and public health preparedness, 7(3), 292-301.
  • Paton, D., Gregg, C. E., Houghton, B. F., Lachman, R., Lachman, J., Johnston, D. M., & Wongbusarakum, S. (2008). The impact of the 2004 tsunami on coastal Thai communities: assessing adaptive capacity. Disasters, 32(1), 106-119.
  • Perry, R. W., Lindell, M. K., & Tierney, K. J. (Eds.). (2001). facing the unexpected: Disaster preparedness and response in the United States. Joseph Henry Press.
  • Pfefferbaum, R. L., Pfefferbaum, B., Van Horn, R. L., Klomp, R. W., Norris, F. H., & Reissman, D. B. (2013). The communities advancing resilience toolkit (CART): An intervention to build community resilience to disasters. Journal of public health management and practice, 19(3), 250-258.
  • Pourmousavi, M., Zanganeh Shahraki, S., Ahmadifard, N., Abdi, N. (2011), Effect of high rise buildings on the rate of urban crime (case study, districts of Tehran), Human Geography Research, No. 77, pp. 61-74.
  • Ramezanzadeh Lasbui, M., Badri, A. (2014), Socio-economic structures of the resilience of local communities against natural disasters with an emphasis on floods, case study: Cheshmeh Kileh and Sardarabad tourism hubs, Journal of Geographic Society of Iran, New edition, Vol. 12, No. 40, pp. 109-131.
  • Rezaei Baharabad, (2010). Dilapidated urban textures, crime hotspots: effect of dilapidated textures around Razavi shrine on the crime rate, Tehran, Iranian Social Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4.
  • Sadiqlou, T., Sajasy Qidari, H. (2014), Prioritization of factors affecting the resilience of farmers to natural hazards (with emphasis on drought). Case study: Farmers in Ejrud villages, Geography and Environmental Hazards, No. 10, summer 2014. pp. 129-153.
  • Saeedi, I., Darabi, H. (2014), University landscape design with resilience to water crisis (case study: Malayer University), Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 1051-1066.
  • Van der Leeuw, S. E., & Aschan-Leygonie, C. (2005). A long-term perspective on resilience in socio-natural systems. In Micro Meso Macro: Addressing Complex Systems Couplings (pp. 227-264).
  • Varamin Improvement and Renovation Project (2010), Iranian Civil Construction and Housing Company.
  • Varghese, S. B. (2010). Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of natural disasters from the survivors’ perspective. Critical Care Nursing Clinics, 22(4), 515-522.